Utilities are those companies that build and maintain the infrastructure needed to provide electricity, gas, and water, or to manage wastewater and sewage; they also provide the related service that utilizes that infrastructure. Utility services are fundamental to modern society.

Across the globe, energy is generated or produced every second of the day, and it is the work of energy utility companies to distribute it in the form of electricity to homes and businesses. Most utility companies provide either electric power or natural gas for heating and cooking although some provide both. Many companies generate the power, as well as distribute it. Some companies act as brokers and sell energy produced by one company to another company or a large manufacturing client. The utility industry’s primary goal is to meet the power and energy demands of their clients, anticipate the highs and lows of demand, and to provide energy as efficiently and affordably as possible. Water and sewage utilities are responsible for providing a clean source of water to residences as well as commercial and industrial structures and for removing and treating sewage and wastewater.

In addition to attaining these overarching goals, utilities must also provide customer service. Customers who move to a new home or apartment must close their utility accounts at one address and open a new account for the new home. Some customers may move out of the service territory, build a new home that has no power or water lines already available, have questions about their bills or want to make payment arrangements, or need conservation tips and advice. Utility companies provide all these services. In addition, they are responsible for restoring service in the event of an outage if severe weather or an accident damages power, gas, or water lines. Gas utilities are responsible for inspecting gas lines and ensuring their safety. Utility companies also build new services and must replace existing p...